Class Notes U05

2. cf. petty; pretty

      *petty/ trivial details

3.  release (vt.) (n.)
   *release a prisoner/ a patient from the hospital/ 10% of the workers
   *release a statement/ the name of the suspect
   *release an album/ a movie
   *release stress
   *release(= discharge) toxic waste into the river

4. cf. fatigue; figure

 疲累 (n.)  tiredness; fatigue; exhaustion
 疲累的 (adj.)  tired; fatigued; exhausted
6. cf. 
  *accuse sb of sth
  *sue sb for sth  
  *charge sb with sth 
  *convict sb of sth 
  *sentence sb to ... years in prison

7. cf. identity; identification

- A family member came for identification of the body.
- The movie audience felt a strong sense of identification with the good guys.
- The identity of the victim is not known.

8. cf. consequently; subsequently

  - She graduated from college and subsequently(= afterward) moved 
    to New York.
  - The economy was poor. Consequently(=as a result), many college 
    graduates were forced to move elsewhere to find jobs.

10. 同情  feel pity/ sympathy/ compassion for sb
      遺憾  It is/was a pity/ shame that S + V
12. cf. surprised; astonished; staggered; shocked; stunned; amazed; 
     cf. surprising; astonishing; staggering; shocking; stunning; amazing

13. 珍惜(v.) treasure; cherish

15. 糟糕的(adj.)  dreadful; awful; terrible; horrible
  dread vt. 懼怕;[U] 恐懼
 - He dreaded(= was afraid of) going back home.
 - The thought of flying filled me with dread(= fear).

16. cf. brood over/ about/ on sth
           reflect on sth
           think about/ contemplate/ ponder (over/ about/ on) sth

17. 擲銅板:
 - We made the decision by flipping/ tossing a coin.
 - The decision was made by a flip/ toss of a coin.


20. 哭泣(v.) cf. cry; weep

21. 不知何故(adv.): somehow; for some reason

22. 消失(v.): cf. vanish; disappear

Idioms and Phrases

5. cf: pass; pass by
 - She waved as she passed (by). 經過
 - Two years passed/ went by/ flew by) and it was time 
   to come home again. 時光流逝/飛逝

7. (1) (突然)想到
 *sth + occur to + sb
 *sth + cross/ come into/ flash(go; run) through one’s mind
 *sth + spring to/ come to mind
 *sb + hit on(upon) + sth

- This brilliant idea occurred to me.
= This brilliant idea crossed/ came into/ flashed through my mind.
= This brilliant idea sprang to/ came to mind.
= I hit on/upon this brilliant idea.

 (2) (突然)意識到: 
 *sth + occur to/ strike/ hit + sb
- It suddenly occurred to/ struck/ hit me that I had said something wrong.
= I suddenly realized that I had said something wrong. 

 *sb + come up with/ think up/ think of + a(n) plan/ excuse/ solution...

- The girl came up with/ thought up/ thought of a plan.


4  ..., I spent nineteen years in prison(= in jail).

 *be in prison
 *go to prison; be sent to prison
 *get out of prison; be released from prison
 *send sb to prison; put sb in prison 

6. .... I was a bitter man.

 bitter adj.
1. I felt very bitter about it. *a bitter old man  → 充滿怨恨的、憤憤不平的
2. *a bitter experience → 痛苦的
3. *a bitter struggle/ battle激烈的
4. *bitter taste  → 苦味的
5. *a bitter wind; *the bitter cold  → 刺骨寒冷的

10  ...and I felt hungry and suffered from fatigue.

*suffer pain/ defeat/ the loss/ the consequence
*suffer from a disease → 罹患
*suffer from shock/ fatigue... → 因...而受苦

21 ...., I was left to shiver in the dark.
- I was left to find my way home.
- I was left wondering what had gone wrong.

- His friends abandoned him and he was left there to die(die).
- The engine was left running(run) for fear that it wouldn’t start again.

54  As soon as I saw the coin, I stepped on it and refused to move.
=   Upon seeing the coin, I stepped on it and refused to move.
=  No sooner had I seen the coin than I stepped on it and refused to move.
=   Hardly/ Scarcely had I seen the coin when/ before I stepped on it 
    and refused to move.

59  .... as though having woken from a nightmare, ...

 *as though = as if

1. He felt as though having lost(= as though he had lost) his last friend.
2. She stared at me as though feeling(= as though she felt) astonished.
3. She smiled as though to tell(= as though she was telling) me she was all right.

 *wake, woke, woken

61  ... I had stolen from a child simply out of habit!

*steal (sth) from sb

 *out of habit
 *get into/ form a habit
 *break/ kick/ get out of the habit of ~

64  With flames of regret burning deep inside of me, 
      I couldn’t (help) but weep and pray....
=   As flames of regret burned/ burnt deep inside of me, 
      I couldn’t help weeping and praying...
 *cannot help but + 原V
 *cannot but +原V
 *cannot help + Ving
 Key to Pattern Practice:

1.By the 1950s, jeans had becom(become) the main play-clothes 
  of children.
2.By the time May turned(turn) 15, she had achieved(achieve) 
  worldwide fame.
3.It was a disaster. By the time the mother got(get) home, the baby 
  had been wailing(wail) over an hour.
4.By noon tomorrow, the superstar will have arrived(arrive) in Taiwan.
5.If you don’t hurry, the children will have eaten(eat) up the whole 
  cake by the time you enter(enter) the door.
6.By next Friday we will have been working(work) on the essay for 
  three weeks.
7.Please have(have) your application sent in by next Monday.
8.Time flies. By the time Joe’s mother visits(visit) us in the 
  summer, we will have been dating(date) for over two years.

I Task 1

1. By the time Dennis took out his camera, the beautiful butterfly had 
    flown away.

2. By the time Sheila’s favorite talk show begins, she will have finished 
    typing up the report.

I Task 2

1. By the time the girl showed up, I had been waiting in the restaurant 
    for an hour.

2. By the time the first course was served, I had lost my appetite.

3. By the time we had dessert, we had run out of conversation topics.

4. By the time our date ended, we had decided never to contact each 
    other again.

5. I guess by the time I meet my soul mate, I will have become an 
    old man.

I Task 3

1. I have been having a headache for two days.

2. The little girl was singing while walking.

3. I will be preparing for the exam at this time next year.

4. I was doing the dishes when you knocked on(at) the door.

5. She didn’t become famous until she wrote the novel.

6. I had been practicing playing the piano for two hours 
    by the time(before) you got home.

7. I have been worrying about you since I got(received) the 
    text message.

8. I woke up before the alarm clock went off.
    I had woken up by the time(before) the alarm clock went off.
9. He dashed out of the door upon(on) seeing me.

10. I tripped over the telephone cord while mopping the floor.

11. Becky told me that her boyfriend had been lying (all along).

12. The sun should have come out by the time(when) you arrive.

II Task

1. Abby said (that) fried chicken was bad for health and that she 
    should stop eating it.

2. Meg remembered (that) she had taken out the garbage and that her 
    brother had done the dishes.

3. Ethan noticed (that) Debby had forgotten to turn off the light and 
    that Shawn had left the water running in the bathroom.
4. Allison mentioned (that) the deadline for the paper was next 
    Monday and that she was running out of time.

5. It never occurred to Omar that the king would send him into exile and 
    that he would return to Mocha as a hero.