Class Notes U11

1. thunder n.[U]

 - Thunder crashed/ boomed in the sky.
 - Thunder cracked overhead.
 - Thunder rolled/ rumbled in the distance.

5. cf. graceful; grateful

7. nevertheless = nonetheless = however

15. cf. episode; event; incident

 - The election was the main event of 2008.
 - This latest episode in the political scandal has shocked many people.
 - I just want to put that embarrassing incident behind me.
 - She often arrive at social/ sporting events early.

16. cf. peak; peek

 - She peeked through a hole in the fence.
 - Electricity usage peaks during the summer.

25. cf. preservation; perseverance

 - Through hard work and perseverance, he worked his way up to the top.
 - We are working for the preservation of our cultural heritage.


1  Glove puppetry has long been an ... culture.
→  Glove puppetry has been an ... culture for a long time.

4  ... about 250 years ago ...
→ ... around 250 years ago ...
→ ...250 or so years ago

7 ... graceful puppet movements, ...

 movement n.[U][C]
 - We were impressed with the dancer’s graceful movements.
 - The astronomer studies the movements of the planets.
 - He started a social/ peace/ reform movement.

11  For example(= For instance), it experienced some major 
      but short-lived changes....

      major (adj.) ←→ minor
      short-lived (adj.) ←→ long-lived
15  ...and, therefore(= thus; as a result), unpopular with the locals.

      be popular(←→ unpopular) with/ among sb
    - This TV series is especially popular with/ among teenagers.
18 ...grew in popularity again.

   grow/ gain/ increase in populartiy

18  Before long, Jin Guang, meaning “golden light” in Mandarin, ...
It was not long before Jin Guang, which means “golden light” in Mandarin, ...

21  Lighting played a key(= crucial) role(= part) during these performances, 
      and so did pop songs.
      S + V, and so did pop songs.
→  S + V, as did pop songs.
→  S + V, and pop songs did, too.

24  ... (every) now and then.

=   ... (every) now and again
=   ... on occasion = occasionally
=   ... once in a while

32  ..., including students, ...
=   ..., inclusive of students, ...
=   ..., students included, ...

41  Rules and regulations were set up, one of which forced the shows to ...
=   Rules and regulations were set up, one of them forcing the shows to ...

43  Because of (= Due to; Owing to; On account of) this, ...

56  Glove puppetry, as well as most other art forms in Taiwan, now has...

 - I’d like coffee and some bread as well(= too)
 - I’d like some coffee, as well as(= in addition to) some bread.

66  ..., maybe it is time for local folk artists to draw inspiration...
→  ..., maybe it is time (that) local folk artists drew inspiration...