Class Notes U06


1. 特徵[C]:  feature; characteristic; property

3. 汙染 cf.  pollute; contaminate

7. - The police compared the suspect’s fingerprints with those found
      at the crime scene.
    - The poet compared his sweetheart to a beautiful rose.

9. cf. discharge; release

11. 化石燃料: fossil fuel

      汽油: gas [US]; gasoline; petrol [UK]

15. cf. severe (adj.); persevere (vi.)

      嚴寒的:  a severe/ harsh winter
      嚴重的:  severe/ serious injuries
      嚴厲的:  be severe/ harsh on sb

16. fertile ←→ infertile; barren
 
      a fertile/ rich imagination

19. cf. expand; extend

 - Management agreed to extend the deadline.
 - The computer industry has expanded greatly over the last decade.
 - The woods extend for miles to the west.
 - The hotel wants to expand its business by adding a swimming pool.

  人口膨脹:  population expansion
  人口爆炸:  population explosion

  擴充字彙量:  expand/ enlarge/ build one’s vocabulary
 
22. 把握...機會: 
      seize/ grab/ jump at the chance (to V)
    
23. cf. 減少,降低:
      reduce (vt.); decrease (vi.)(vt.); lower (vt.)(vi.)
   
 - Small businesses will need to reduce costs in order to survive.
 - The population decreased to 5.2 million in 1881.
 - All the shirts were reduced to $10.
 - You can reduce/ lower/ decrease your chance of developing heart disease 
   by exercising often.


Idioms and Phrases

1. at risk of sth = in danger of sth

Reading

4  ...the very last... 

 "very" 為強調字的用法
 
 (1) the very first/ second/ last/ best/ worst/ same...  
    強調序數、最高級、“own”、“same”等
 - The twins got married on the very same day.

 (2) the very + N  強調精確 “就是”
 - This is the very book that I've been looking for all month.

9  ..., polar bears are at risk of extinction.
= ...are in danger of extinction.
= ...are on the brink of extinction.
= ...are becoming extinct.
= ...are dying out.

10  They not only have been over-hunted..., but now are also being threatened...
→ They not merely /just have been over-hunted..., but now are being...too/ as wellNot only have they been over-huntd..., but now they are also being threatened...

    * not only/ just/ merely A but (also) B
               ...                          but B too/ as well
               
    * Not only 助V/be V + S...but S+ V

13  Because of (= Due to; Owing to; On account of) global warming,...

16.  ...population is falling(= decreasing; on the decrease)

20  Actually (= In (actual) fact; Indeed; as a matter of fact), ...

21  Compared to other natural disasters...
(= Compared with; In comparison to/with) ...

23  ...at a rather gradual pace

 cf.  very; fairly; rather
 
 - The doll is very/ fairly pretty.
 - The doll is very/ rather ugly.

23  Slow as it is,...= As slow as it is; Slow though it is; 
      Although/ Though it is slow

25  ...by the burning of fuels. = ...by burning fuels.

    - Building this palace took 15 years.
 → The building of this palace took 15 years.

27  ...keeps it from... = ...prevents it from...

27  As the planet warms up,...= With the planet warming up,...

29  ...to melt, resulting in worldwide sea levels rising.
=    ...to melt, which results in...
→  ...to melt, causing worldwide sea levels to rise(rise).

30  costal areas 沿海地區

      low-lying areas 低窪地區

41  ..., it is said that they will kill and eat... 
    = ..., they are said to kill and eat...

45  ...seize every opportunity...
   =  take/ grab/ grasp every opportunity...

46  ..., or food shortages...

    否則 cf. or (conj.); otherwise (adv.)

49  ...our turn to...  

  輪到...(人) 去做... 
  * It is one’s turn to V.

   輪到你去洗碗了。
 - It’s your turn to do the dishes.